the grape varieties used in the worldwide production of
wine are descended almost exclusively from a grapevine
(Vitis vinifera) out of Transcaucasia (present-day Georgia
and Armenia.) The earliest finds date back 6 millennia
to ancient Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq and Syria,) furthermore,
an amphora dating back to 3500 B.C. found in Iran has
wine themes painted on it.
cultivation came to Europe through Egypt, Greece and Spain.
Wine played a great role in the Greek and Roman civilizations.
Wine was cultivated in the Greek colonies in southern Italy
and France (Massalia.) The Romans spread the art of wine
growing in every region of their empire with a favorable
the fall of the Roman Empire and the take-over of its
territories by Germanic tribes, wine growing declined.
Not until between the 12th and 16th centuries was it taken