The production of beer  

The production of beer essentially hasn't changed since the Middle Ages. The basic principles can be traced back to the Sumerians. Even back then it was all about producing a refreshing, tasty and more or less alcoholic drink through the mysterious method of fermentation.

Beer is gained by the fermentation of grain and other cereals containing starch. Most beer is produced from barley that has been processed into malt and flavored with hops. Beer produced in Germany is subject to purity regulations: it may only be brewed from barley malt, hops, yeast and water.

Rice is used in brewing in Japan, China und Korea (there it's called sake, samshu or suk), in Africa it is millet and sorghum, among other things. Russian kvass is brewed from fermented rye bread and fruit.

All of the differences in flavor, aroma and color stem from the technical processes that are characteristic of each country, type of beer and master brewer.

Independent of climate, season and even location, the quality of beer is a matter of the procedure that has been gained over generations or the result of the scientific application of modern technology.

Dependent upon the yeast used, there is a basic distinguishing feature in the diversity of beers produced in Europe. Beers produced with top-fermenting yeast (i.e. the yeast swims on the fermenting brew) are called top-fermented beers. Beers produced with bottom-fermenting yeast (i.e. the yeast acts at the bottom of the fermenting brew) are called bottom-fermented beers.